Marine der USA

Die junge Nation interessierte sich lange Zeit nicht für die Weltmeere und beschränkte sich beim Wachstum auf den Westen des gewaltigen Kontinents. Kriegsschiffe wurden erst vom Kongress beauftragt und gebaut, wenn ein wirklicher Bedarf vorhanden war. Und auch dann beschränkte man sich auf den Bau von wendigen Fregatten, welche allerdings deutlich schwerer gepanzert waren als ihre britischen Vorbilder. Aus den napoleonischen Kriegen hielten sich die USA weitgehend heraus, auch wenn es um die Jahrhundertwende den „Quasi-Krieg“ mit dem revolutionären Frankreich gab. Dieser nie erklärte Krieg diente als Hintergrund für spannende Szenarien entlang der amerikanischen Küste. Der „Nonintercourseact“ verbot später amerikanischen Schiffen den Verkehr mit Frankreich und England und sperrte zugleich die eigenen Häfen für Schiffe dieser Staaten. Im Krieg von 1812 eskalierte ein Konflikt zwischen England und den USA. Die Engländer nahmen sich das Recht heraus, jedes Schiff nach englischen Deserteuren durchsuchen zu dürfen. Napoleons katastrophaler Russlandfeldzug gab England genug Sicherheit um einen Teil seiner Aufmerksamkeit auf die ehemalige Kolonie zu richten.

Die Schiffe der Continental Navy

Name Kanonen Typ Anschaffung Schicksal
Alfred 24 Ship Gekauft 1775 Captured 9 March 1778 by HMS Ariadne and Ceres
Columbus 20 Ship Gekauft 1775 Burned 27 March 1778 after being chased on shore by a British squadron
Andrew Doria 14 Brig Gekauft 1775 Burned to prevent capture, 21 November 1777
Cabot 14 Brig Gekauft 1775 Captured by HMS Milford in 1777
Providence 12 Sloop Gekauft 1775 Zerstört 1779
Hornet 10 Sloop Gekauft 1775 Zerstört 1777
Wasp 8 Schoner Gekauft 1775 Zerstört 1777
Fly 8 Schoner Gekauft 1775 Zerstört 1777
Lexington 16 Brigg Gekauft 1776 Captured by British cutter Alert1777
Reprisal 16 Brigg Gekauft 1776 Lost at sea 1777
Hampden 14 Brigg Gekauft 1776 Sold 1777
Independence 10 Sloop Gekauft 1776 Wrecked 1778
Sachem 10 Sloop Gekauft 1776 Zerstört 1777
Mosquito 4 Sloop Gekauft 1776 Zerstört 1777
Raleigh 32 Fregatte Launched 1776 Captured 1778
Hancock 32 Fregatte Launched 1776 Captured 1777
Warren 32 Fregatte Launched 1776 Zerstört 1779
Washington 32 Fregatte Launched 1776 Zerstört 1777
Randolph 32 Fregatte Launched 1776 Lost in action 1778
Providence 28 Fregatte Launched 1776 Captured 1780
Trumbull 28 Fregatte Launched 1776 Captured 1781
Congress 28 Fregatte Lauched 1776 Zerstört 1777
Virginia 28 Fregatte Launched 1776 Captured 1778
Effingham 28 Fregatte Launched 1776 Zerstört 1777
Boston 24 Fregatte Launched 1776 Captured 1780
Montgomery 24 Fregatte Launched 1776 Zerstört 1777
Delaware 24 Fregatte Launched 1776 Zerstört 1777
Ranger 18 Ship Launched 1777 Captured 1780
Resistance 10 Brigantine Launched 1777 Captured 1778
Surprise Sloop Gekauft 1777 Unknown
Racehorse 12 Sloop Erobert 1776 Zerstört
Repulse 8 Xebec Pennsylvania State Navy gunboat ausgeliehen an Continental Navy 1777 Zerstört 1777
Champion 8 Xebec Pennsylvania State Navy gunboat ausgeliehen an Continental Navy 1777 Zerstört 1777
L'Indien 40 Fregatte Gebaut in Holland 1777 Sold to France; later acquiredby South Carolina Navy as South Carolina
Deane (later Hague) 32 Fregatte Gekauft 1777 Sold 1783
Queen of France 28 Fregatte Gekauft 1777 Gesunken 1780
Dolphin 10 Cutter Gekauft 1777 unbekannt
Surprise 10 Lugger Gekauft 1777 Seized by France
Revenge 14 Cutter Gekauft 1777 Verkauft 1779
Alliance 32 Fregatte Launched 1778 Verkauft 1785
General Gates 18 Ship Gekauft 1778 Verkauft 1779
Retaliation Brigantine Gekauft 1778 unbekannt
Pigot 8 Schooner Erobert 1778 unbekannt
Confederacy 32 Fregatte Launched 1779 Captured 1781
Argo 12 Sloop Gekauft 1779 Verkauft 1779
Diligent 12 Brigg Erobert 1779 Zerstört 1779
Bonhomme Richard 42 Ship Gekauft 1779 Lost in action 1779
Pallas 32 Fregatte Ausgeliehen von Frankreich 1779 Returned to France
Cerf 18 Kutter Ausgeliehen von Frankreich 1779 Returned to France
Vengeance 12 Brigg Ausgeliehen von Frankreich 1779 Returned to France
Serapis 44 Fregatte Erobert 1779 Verkauft 1779
Ariel 20 Ship Ausgeliehen von Frankreich 1780 Returned to France 1781
Saratoga 18 Ship Launched 1780 Lost at sea 1781
America 74 Linienschiff Launched 1782 Given to France
General Washington 20 Ship Erobert 1782 Verkauft 1784
Duc de Lauzun 20 Ship Gekauft 1782 Verkauft 1783
Bourbon 36 Fregatte Launched 1783 Verkauft 1783

Vessels of the Continental Navy

Rules for the Regulation of the Navy of the United Colonies of North-America

28. November 1775

Rules for the Regulation of the Navy
of the United Colonies of North-America;

Established for Preserving their Rights and Defending their Liberties, and for Encouraging all those who Feel for their Country, to enter into its service in that way in which they can be most Useful.

ART. 1. The Commanders of all ships and vessels belonging to the THIRTEEN UNITED COLONIES, are strictly required to shew in themselves a good example of honor and virtue to their officers and men, and to be very vigilant in inspecting the behaviour of all such as are under them, and to discountenance and suppress all dissolute, immoral and disorderly practices; and also, such as are contrary to the rules of discipline and obedience, and to correct those who are guilty of the same according to the usage of the sea.

ART. 2. The Commanders of the ships of the Thirteen United Colonies are to take care that divine service be performed twice a day on board, and a sermon preached on Sundays, unless bad weather or other extraordinary accidents prevent it.

ART. 3. If any shall be heard to swear, curse or blaspheme the name of God, the Captain is strictly enjoined to punish them for every offence, by causing them to wear a wooden collar or some other shameful badge of distinction, for so long a time as he shall judge proper:-- If he be a commissioned officer he shall forfeit one shilling for each offence, and a warrant or inferior officer, six-pence: He who is guilty of drunkenness (if a seaman) shall be put in irons until he is sober, but if an officer, he shall forfeit two days pay.

ART. 4. No Commander shall inflict any punishment upon a seaman beyond twelve lashes upon his bare back with a cat of nine-tails; if the fault shall deserve a greater punishment, he is to apply to the Commander in Chief of the navy in order to the trying of him by a court martial, and in the mean time he may put him under confinement.

ART. 5. The Captain is never by his own authority to discharge a commission or warrant officer, nor to punish or strike him, but he may suspend or confine him; and when he comes in the way of a Commander in Chief, apply to him for holding a court-martial.

ART. 6. The officer who commands by accident of the Captain's absence (unless he be absent for a time by leave) shall not order any correction but confinement; and upon the Captain's return on board, he shall then give an account of his reasons for so doing.

ART. 7. The Captain is to cause the articles of war to be hung up in some public place of the ship, and read to the ship's company once a month.

ART. 8. Whenever the Captain shall enlist a seaman, he shall take care to enter on his books the time and terms of his entering in order to his being justly paid.

ART. 9. The Captain shall before he sails make return to and leave with the Congress, or such person or persons as the Congress appoint for that purpose, a compleat list of all his officers and men, with the time and terms of their entering; and during his cruise, shall keep a true account of the desertion or death of any of them, and of the entering of others; and after his cruise, and before any of them are paid off, he shall make return of a compleat list of the same, including those who shall remain on board his ship.

ART. 10. The men shall (at their request) be furnished with slops that are necessary, by the Captain or Purser, who shall keep an account of the same; and the Captain in his return in the last mentioned article directed to be made, shall mention the amount delivered to each man in order to its being stopped out of his pay.

ART. 11. As to the term inferior officers the Captain is to take notice, that the same does not include any commission nor any warrant officer, except the second master, surgeons mates, cook, armourer, gun-smith, master at arms and the sail-maker.

ART. 12. The Captain is to take care when any inferior officers or volunteer seamen are turned over into the ship under his command from any other ship, not to take them on the ship's books, in a worse quality or lower degree of station than they served in the ship they were removed from; and for his guidance, he is to demand from the commander of the ship from which they are turned over, a list under his hand of their names and qualities.

ART. 13. Any officer, seaman or others entitled to wages or prize-money, may have the same paid to his assignee, provided the assignment be attested by the Captain or commander, the master or purser of the ship, or a chief magistrate of some county or corporation.

ART. 14. The Captain is to discourage the seamen of his ship from selling any part of their wages or shares, and never to attest the letter of attorney of any seaman until he is fully satisfied; the same is not granted in consideration of money given for the purchase of his wages or shares.

ART. 15. When any inferior officer or seaman dies, the Captain is forthwith to make out a ticket for the time of his service and send the same by the first safe conveyance to the Congress or agents by them for that purpose, appointed in order to the wages being forthwith paid to the executors or administrators of the deceased.

ART. 16. A convenient place shall be set apart for sick or hurt men, to be removed with their hammocks and bedding when the surgeon shall advise the same to be necessary: and some of the crew shall be appointed to attend and serve them and to keep the place clean. The cooper shall make buckets with covers and cradles if necessary for their use.

ART. 17. All ships furnished with fishing tackle, being in such places where fish is to be had, the Captain is to employ some of the company in fishing, the fish to be distributed daily to such persons as are sick, or upon recovery, if the surgeons recommend it; and the surplus by turns amongst the messes of the officers and seamen without favour or partiality, and gratis, without any deduction of their allowance or provisions on that account.

ART. 18. It is left to the discretion of the Commander of squadrons to shorten the allowance of provisions according to the exigence of the service, taking care that the men be punctually paid for the same. The like power is given to Captains of single ships in cases of absolute necessity.

ART. 19. If there shall be a want of pork, the Captain is to order three pounds of beef to be issued to the men in lieu of a two pound piece of pork.

ART. 20. One day in every week shall be issued out a proportion of flour and suet in lieu of beef for the seamen; but this is not to exceed beyond four months victualling at one time, nor shall the purser receive any allowance for flour or suet kept longer on board than that time. And there shall be supplied once a year, a proportion of canvas for pudding bags, after the rate of one ell for every sixteen men.

ART. 21. If any ships of the Thirteen United Colonies shall happen to come into port in want of provisions, the warrant of a Commander in Chief shall be sufficient to the agent or other instrument of the victualling to supply the quantity wanted; and in urgent cases where delay may be hurtful, the warrant of the Captain of the ship shall be of equal effect.

ART 22. The Captain is frequently to order the proper officer to inspect into the condition of the provisions, and if the bread proves damp to have it aired upon the quarter-deck or poop, and also to examine the flesh cask; and if any of the pickle be leaked out, to have new made and put in and the cask made tight and secure.

ART. 23. The Captain or purser shall secure the cloaths, bedding and other things of such persons as shall die or be killed, to be delivered to their executors or administrators.

ART. 24. All the papers, charter parties, bills of lading, pass-ports and other writings whatever, found on board any ship or ships which shall be taken shall be carefully preserved, and the originals sent to the court of justice for maritime affairs, appointed, or to be appointed by Congress for judging concerning such prize or prizes; and if any person or persons shall wilfully or negligently destroy, or suffer to be destroyed, any such paper or papers, he or they so offending, shall forfeit their share of such prize or prizes, and suffer such other punishment as they shall be judged by a court-martial to deserve.

ART. 25. If any person or persons shall embezzle, steal or take away any cables, anchors, sails, or any of the ship's furniture, or any of the powder or arms, or ammunition or provisions of any ship belonging to the Thirteen United Colonies, he or they shall suffer punishment as a court-martial shall order.

ART. 26. When in sight of the ship or ships of the enemy, and at such other times as may appear to make it necessary to prepare for engagement, the Captain shall order all things in his ship in a proper posture for fight, and shall in his own person, and according to his duty, heart on and encourage the inferior officers and men to fight courageously, and not to behave themselves feintly or cry for quarters on pain of such punishment as the offence shall appear to deserve for his neglect.

ART. 27. Any Captain or other officer, mariner or others, who shall basely desert their duty or station in the ship and run away while the enemy is in fight, or in time of action, or entice others to do so, shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial shall inflict.

ART. 28. No person in or belonging to the ship shall utter any words of sedition and mutiny, nor endeavour to make any mutinous assemblies upon any pretence whatsoever upon such penalty as a court-martial shall inflict.

ART. 29. Any officer, seaman or marine, who shall begin to excite, cause, or join in any mutiny or sedition in the ship to which he belongs on any pretence whatsoever, shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial shall direct.

ART. 30. None shall presume to quarrel with, or strike his superior officer, on pain of such punishment as a court-martial shall order to be inflicted.

ART. 31. If any person shall apprehend he has just cause of complaint, he shall quietly and decently make the same known to his superior officer, or to the Captain, as the case may require, who will take care that justice be done him.

ART. 32. There shall be no quarreling or fighting between ship mates on board any ship belonging to the Thirteen United Colonies, nor shall there be used any reproachful or provoking speeches tending to make quarrels and disturbance on pain of imprisonment, and such other punishment as a court-martial shall think proper to inflict.

ART. 33. If any person shall sleep upon his watch, or negligently perform the duty which shall be enjoined him to do, or forsake his station, he shall suffer such punishment as a court-martial shall think proper to inflict, according to the nature of his offence.

ART. 34. All murder shall be punished with death.

ART. 35. All robbery and theft shall be punished at the discretion of a court-martial.

ART. 36. Any Master at Arms who shall refuse to receive such prisoner or prisoners as shall be committed to his charge, or having received them, shall suffer him or them to escape, or dismiss them without orders for so doing, shall suffer in his or their stead, as a court-martial shall order and direct.

ART. 37. The Captain, officers and others shall use their utmost endeavours to detect, apprehend and bring to punishment, all offenders, and shall at all times readily assist the officers appointed for that purpose in the discharge of their duty on pain of their being proceeded against, and punished by a court-martial at discretion.

ART. 38. All other faults, disorders and misdemeanors which shall be committed on board any ship belonging to the Thirteen United Colonies, and which are not herein mentioned, shall be punished according to the laws and customs in such cases used at sea.

ART. 39. A court martial shall consist of at least three Captains and three Lieutenants, with three Captains and three first Lieutenants of marines, if there shall be so many of the marines then present, and the eldest Captain shall preside.

ART. 40. All sea officers of the same denomination shall take rank of the officers of the marines.

ART. 41. Every member of a court-martial shall take the following oath, viz. "You swear that you will, well and truly and impartially determine the cause of the prisoner now to be tried according to the rules of the navy of the United Colonies; so help you God." Which oath shall be duly administered by the President to the other members, and the President shall himself be sworn by the officer in the said court next in rank.

ART. 42. All witnesses, before they may be permitted to give evidence, shall take the following oath, viz. "You swear, the evidence you shall give in the cause now in hearing, shall be the whole truth and nothing but the truth; so help you God."

ART. 43. The sentence of a court martial for any capital offence shall not be put in execution until it be confirmed by the Commander in Chief of the fleet, and it shall be the duty of the President of every court-martial to transmit to the Commander in Chief every sentence which shall be given, with a summary of the evidence and proceedings thereon by the first opportunity.

ART. 44. The Commander in Chief of the fleet for the time being, shall have power to pardon and remit any sentence of death that shall be given in consequence of any of the aforementioned articles.

US Navy - Rules for the Regulation of the Navy of the United Colonies of North-America



Secretary of the Navy

Der Secretary of the Navy, vergleichbar mit Marinestaatssekretär oder Marineminister, ist der zivile Leiter des Department of the Navy. Bis 1947 gehörte der Secretary of the Navy dem Kabinett an, danach wurde er dem Verteidigungsminister unterstellt.


Benjamin Stoddert

18. Juni 1798 - 31. März 1801

Robert Smith

27. Juli 1801 - 4. März 1809

Paul Hamilton

15. Mai 1809 - 31. Dezember 1812

William Jones

19. Januar 1813 - 1. Dezember 1814

Benjamin W. Crowninshield

16. Januar 1815 - 30. September 1818

Smith Thompson

1. Januar 1819 - 31. August 1823

Samuel L. Southard

16. September 1823 - 4. März 1829

John Branch

9. März 1829 - 12. Mai 1831

Levi Woodbury

23. Mai 1831 - 30. Juni 1834

Mahlon Dickerson

1. Juli 1834 - 30. Juni 1838

James K. Paulding

1. Juli 1838 - 4. März 1841

George E. Badger

6. März 1841 - 11. September 1841

Abel P. Upshur

11. Oktober, 1841 - 23. Juli 1843

David Henshaw

24. Juli 1843 - 18. Februar 1844

Thomas W. Gilmer

19. Februar, 1844 - 28. Februar, 1844

John Y. Mason

26. März 1844 - 4. März 1845

George Bancroft

11. März 1845 - 9. September 1846

John Y. Mason

10. September 1846 - 4. März 1849

William B. Preston

8. März 1849 - 22. Juli 1850

William A. Graham

2. August 1850 - 25. Juli 1852

John P. Kennedy

26. Juli 1852 - 4. März 1853

James C. Dobbin

8. März 1853 - 4. März 1857

Isaac Toucey

7. März 1857 - 4. März 1861

Gideon Welles

7. März 1861 - 4. März 1869

Adolph E. Borie

9. März 1869 - 25. Juni 1869

George M. Robeson

26. Juni 1869 - 4. März 1877

US Navy - Secretary of the Navy

Uniform Regulations 1797

Uniform for the Navy of the United States of America

Captain's Uniform.

FULL DRESSED COAT. Blue Cloth with long buff lappels, and a standing collar, and lining of buff--to be made and trimmed full with a gold epaulet on each shoulder. The cuffs buff, with four buttons to the pockets. Lappels to have nine buttons, and one to the standing collar. Buttons, yellow metal, and to have the foul anchor and American eagle on the same.

VEST AND BREECHES. Buff, with flaps and four buttons to the pockets of the vests, so as to correspond and be in uniform with the coat. Buttons the same kind as the coat, only proportionably smaller.


COAT. Long, blue, with half lappels, standing collar, and lining of buff. The lappels to have six buttons, and one to the collar; below the lappel, right side, three buttons, left side, thee close worked button holes. Three buttons to the pocket flaps, and three to a slash sleeve, with a buff cuff. One gold epaulet on the right shoulder. Trimmings, plain twist.

VEST AND BREECHES. Buff-- The former to be made with skirts, and pocket flaps, but to have no buttons to the pockets. The buttons for the vest and breeches, and coat, the same as for the captain's uniform.

Lieutenant of Marines.

COAT. Long, blue, with long lappels of red; standing collar and lining red. The lappels to have nine buttons, and one to the standing collar. Three buttons to the pocket flaps, and three to a slash sleeve, with a red cuff. One gold epaulet on the right shoulder, for the senior lieutenant, where there are two lieutenants for the same ship, and one on the left shoulder for the second officer. Where there is only one lieutenant, he is also to wear the epaulet on the right shoulder. Trimmings plain.

VEST AND BREECHES. The former, red with skirts and pocket flaps, but to have no buttons to the pockets.-- The latter blue-- Buttons for the suit, the same as the captains and lieutenants.


COAT. Long, dark green, with black velvet lappels, and standing collar.--Lappels to have nine buttons, and one to the standing collar-- No linings, other than being faced with the same cloth as the coat. Slash sleeves, the cuff the same as the facings, with three buttons. Pocket flaps, plain.

VEST AND BREECHES. The former, red, double breasted. The latter green, same as the coat. Buttons, the same as the officers.

Surgeon's Mates.

The same as the surgeons, with only this difference in the coat, to wit--Half lappels, with six buttons, and one to the collar; below the lappel, right side, three buttons; left side, three close worked button holes.

Sailing Masters.

COAT. Long, blue, with facings and standing collar of the same, edged with buff-- nine buttons to the lappels, and one to the standing

US Navy - Uniform Regulations 1797

United States Marine Corps

Samuel Nicholas wurde am 10. November 1775 vom Kontinentalkongress mit der Aufgabe betraut, zwei Bataillone Marineinfanteristen aufzustellen. Diese wurden Continental Marines genannt.

Resolution Establishing the Continental Marines
10 November 1775


(Philadelphia) Friday, November 10, 1775

Resolved, That two Battalions of marines be raised, consisting of one Colonel, two Lieutenant Colonels, two Majors, and other officers as usual in other regiments; and that they consist of an equal number of privates with other battalions; that particular care be taken, that no persons be appointed to office, or enlisted into said Battalions, but such as are good seamen, or so acquainted with maritime affairs as to be able to serve to advantage by sea when required; that they be enlisted and commissioned to serve for and during the present war between Great Britain and the colonies, unless dismissed by order of Congress: that they be distinguished by the names of the first and second battalions of American Marines, and that they be considered as part of the number which the continental Army before Boston is ordered to consist of.

Ordered, That a copy of the above be transmitted to the General.

Die Aufgaben der amerikanischen Marines unterschieden sich nicht sonderlich von Marineinfanteristen anderer Marinen. Sie sollten Schiffe und Besatzung schützen, sowie bei Kämpfen aktiv ins Geschehen eingreifen.

Am 28. November 1775 wurde Samuel Nicholas zum Captain ernannt und somit zum ersten Offizier des amerikanischen Marinekorps.

Tun TaverbRobert Mullan, dessen Mutter Besitzerin der Tun Tavern in Philadelphia war, wurde von Nicholas zum Rekrutierungsbeamten ernannt.

Die Tun Tavern diente bereits seit vielen Jahren als Treffpunkt der von Benjamin Franklin 1756 gegründeten Pennsylvania Militia. Ein weiterer Ort für Rekrutierung war das Gasthaus Conestoga Waggon, welche im Besitz der Familie Nichols war. Unter Alkoholeinfluss konnten dort viele Rekruten, angeworben werden.

Bis Dezember konnten fünf Kompanien mit ungefähr 300 Marines ausgehoben werden. Der erste größere Einsatz war die Landung in der Nähe von Nassau um Schiesspulver und Kanonen zu erobern. Vorzeitig gewarnt, konnte jedoch ein großer Teil der Waffen in Sicherheit gebracht werden.

Im Dezember 1776 sollten die Marines zu General Washingtons Armee bei Trenton stoßen. Sie erreichten die Schlacht von Trenton nicht mehr rechtzeitig, konnten jedoch in die Schlacht von Princeton eingreifen.

Einer der letzten Einsätze der Continental Marines war die Bewachung eines Geldtransports von Boston nach Philadelphia. Das von Louis XVI. geliehene Geld diente zur Gründung der Bank of North America.

Mit dem Abschluss des Friedensvertrags von Paris im Jahr 1783 wurden das Marinekorps, etwa 2.000 Mann, so wie die Continental Navy, aufgelöst. Dennoch feiert man noch heute den 10. November als Geburtstag der US Marines.

Als sich der Konflikt mit Frankreich entwickelte, erließ der Kongress ein Gesetzt zur Bildung der United States Navy und des United States Marine Corps (USMC):

An Act for Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps
11 July 1798

SEC 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That in addition to the present military establishment, there shall be raised and organized a corps of marines, which shall consist of one major, four captains, sixteen first lieutenants, twelve second lieutenants, forty-eight sergeants, forty-eight corporals, thirty-two drums and fifes, and seven hundred and twenty privates, including the marines who have been enlisted, or are authorized to be raised, for the naval armament, and the said corps may be formed into as many companies, or detachments, as the President of the United States shall direct, with a proper distribution of the commissioned and non-commissioned officers and musicians to each company or detachment.
SEC 2. And be it further enacted, That the pay and subsistence of the said officer, privates, and musicians, shall be as follows, to wit; to a major, fifty dollars per month, and four rations per day; to a captain, forty dollars per month, and three rations per day; to a first lieutenant, thirty dollars per month, and three rations per day; to a second lieutenant, twenty-five dollars per month, and two rations per day; and to the non-commissioned officers, privates, and musicians, conformably to the act, entitled "An act providing a naval armament," as shall be fixed by the President of the United States: and the President of the United States shall be, and is hereby, authorized to continue the enlistment of marines, until the said corps shall be complete: and, of himself, to appoint the commissioned officers, whenever, in the recess of the Senate, an appointment shall be necessary. And the enlistments, which shall be made by virtue hereof, may be for the term of three years, subject to be discharged by the President of the United States, or by the ceasing or repeal of the laws providing for the naval armament. And if the marine corps, or any part of it, shall be ordered by the President to do duty on shore, and it shall become necessary to appoint an adjutant, paymaster, quartermaster, sergeant major, quartermaster sergeant, and drum and fife major, or any of them, the major or commandant of the corps is hereby authorized to appoint such staff officer or officers, from the line of subalterns, sergeants, and music, respectively, who shall be entitled, during the time they shall do such duty, to the same extra pay and emoluments which are allowed by law to officers acting in the same capacities in the infantry.
SEC 3. And be it further enacted, That detachment of the corps of marines hereby authorized, shall be made in lieu of the respective quotas of marines which have been established or authorized for the frigates, and other armed vessels and galleys, which shall be employed in the service of the United States: and the President of the United States may detach and appoint such of the officers of this marine corps to act on board the frigates, and any of the armed vessels of the United States, respectively, as he shall, from time to time, judge necessary, any thing in the act "providing a naval armament" to the contrary hereof notwithstanding.
SEC 4. And be it further enacted, That the officers, non-commissioned officers, privates, and musicians, aforesaid, shall take the same oath, and shall be governed by the same rules and articles of war, as are prescribed for the military establishment of the United States, and by the rules for the regulation of the navy, heretofore, or which shall be, established by law, according to the nature of the service in which they shall be employed, and shall be entitled to the same allowance, in case of wounds or disabilities, according to their respective ranks, as are granted by the act "to ascertain and fix the military establishment of the United States."
SEC 5. And be it further enacted, That the non-commissioned officers, musicians, seamen, and marines, who are or shall be enlisted into the service of the United States; and the non-commissioned officers and musicians, who are or shall be enlisted into the army of the United States, shall be, and they are hereby, exempted, during their term of service, from all personal arrests, for any debt or contract.
SEC 6. And be it further enacted, That the marine corps, established by this act, shall, at any time, be liable to do duty in the forts and garrisons of the United States, on the seacoast, or any other duty on shore, as the President, at his discretion, shall direct.

Etwa 500 Soldaten standen unter dem Kommando von Major William W. Burrows. Es war klar, dass sie ihren Dienst hauptsächlich auf den vier neuen amerikanischen Fregatten versehen sollten. An Bord der USS Constitution erlangten die Marines rund um Hispaniola erste Kampferfahrungen.

Bekanntheit erwarb das USMC im ersten amerikanisch-tripolitanischen Krieg (1801-1805). William Eaton und First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon führten sieben Marines und 300 Söldner an um Tripolis zu erobern.

Während des Kriegs von 1812 kämpften die Marines in einigen Seegefechten. Größeren Einfluss hatten sie jedoch in der Schlacht von Bladensburg und der Verteidigung von New Orleans.

Im amerikanisch-mexikanischen Krieg (1846-1848) kam das USMC durch die Schlacht um Chapultepec zu Ruhm. Sie erstürmten die über Mexiko-Stadt liegende Festung Chapultepec, was letztendlich zu dem Fall der Stadt führte. Dieses Ereignis, sowie der Angriff auf Tripolis, fanden ihren Weg in die Hymne des USMC: "From the halls of Montezuma To the shores of Tripoli…"

Am 16. März 1861 wurde das Confederate States Marine Corps (CSMC) ausgehoben. Die Aufspaltung des Marine Corps führte dazu, dass es auf keiner Seite der Bürgerkriegsparteien eine große Rolle spielte. Das USMC wurde in der ersten Schlacht am Bull Run fast vollständig aufgerieben, das CSMC erreichte niemals seine Sollstärke.

United States Marine Corps

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